Included Third


title: Included Third
subtitle: Quantum Logic

About the Concept

{: #concept .intro }

Included Third logic considers the relation between objects rather then objects
themselves, as explained by Stephane Lupasco the included third takes place as a
element associating the 2 elements of a contradiction, letting one and other
possibility to both exist. This logic trains us towards inclusive thinking
taking in account all parameters even if they are not in the direct scope of the
observer.

Sources

{: #sources .intro }

Basarab NICOLESCU refers to the notion developed by Stéphane LUPASCO.

  • Qu’est-ce que la réalité ?, (NICOLESCU, 2009, ISBN: 978-2-89578-191-2)

Quantum physics has taught us how to think

{: #exploitation }

Le tiers inclus ne signifie nullement qu’on puisse affirmer une chose et son contraire, ce qui, par annihilation réciproque, détruirait toute possibilité de prédiction et donc toute possibilité d’approche scientifique du monde.
Il s’agit plutôt de reconnaître que, dans un monde d’interconnexions irréductibles (comme le monde quantique), effectuer une expérience ou donner une interprétation des résultats expérimentaux revient inévitablement à un découpage du réel qui affecte ce réel lui-même. L’entité réelle peut ainsi montrer des aspects contradictoires qui sont incompréhensibles, absurdes même, du point de vue d’une logique fondée sur le postulat « ou ceci ou cela ». Ces aspects contradictoires cessent d’être absurdes dans une logique fondée sur le postulat « et ceci et cela » ou plutôt « ni ceci ni cela ».
{: title=“Basarab NICOLESCU, 2009, pp. 16-17” lang=“fr” }

The notion of the included third is directly derived from a quantum physics
understanding, while traditional excluding binary logic considers: what cannot
enter in the resolution of a problematic is excluded and becomes unacoutable in
the decision process, it hinders “an individual’s (or group’s) ability to make
effective choices and to transform those choices into desired outcomes”, as
decisional process becomes excluding, biased.

From a different stance, included third logic transforms contradiction into
something inclusive; each time there is a relation, it considers there is also
an included third derived from this relation that is part of the conditions of
its existence, allowing for a multiplicity of possibilities.

In a decisional and in an analytical process, when aristotelian logic’s asks us
to choose between either A or non A, as a premisce for our reasonning and
acting, included third logic insists both A and non A are valid, as what
associates them is a relational process, an Included Third. An included third
logic allows us to view the complexity of our environment, making it difficult
to think our reality the in the sole limit of the observer’s knowledge and
context; it forces us to acknowledge the always included third that can take
multiple forms. Typically it becomes impossible to think in terms of what
benefits a nation, or exclude consequences like pollution, indeed, our system
and life happens in the relation between all elements[1].

Resistance

{: #resistance }

Included Third is a useful relational concept in political thinking, it can be
activated in political terms to respond to reductionnist and protectionists
discourses.

Detournement

{: #detournement }

Included Third logic is processual, and results in always in transformation
resolution, in order to allow for effective realisation it must be associated to
decisional processes and clear political positionning.

Tree of Significance

{: #tree-of-significance }

SYNONYM
: Quantum Logic

ANTONYM
: Exclusive thinking, Reductionism, Domination

HYPERNYM
: A larger logic still needs to be understood

HYPONYM
: Aristotelian logic is included.


  1. elements which don’t really exist, since they only appear as we cut the real. Karen BARAD would say Cutting Together-Apart (see intra-action). ↩︎

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